文章摘要
暗纹东方鲀立体种养模式和单养模式的水质变化及养殖能效比较
Comparative analysis of water quality changes and cultural efficiencies between multistory culture model and traditional monoculture model of obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus
投稿时间:2020-06-28  修订日期:2020-11-29
DOI:
中文关键词: 暗纹东方鲀  南美白对虾  蕹菜  立体种养模式  水质  养殖能效
英文关键词: obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus)  Penaeus vannamei  Ipomoea aquatica Forsk  Multistory culture model  water quality  breeding efficiency
基金项目:上海市科技兴农重点攻关项目(沪农科创字(2018)第2-8号),上海长江口主要经济水生动物人工繁育工程技术研究中心(13DZ2251800),上海市农业领军人才项目(沪委农办2018-60号)
作者单位邮编
施永海 上海市水产研究所 200433
谢永德 上海市水产研究所 200433
徐嘉波 上海市水产研究所 200433
税 春 上海市水产研究所 200433
袁新程 上海市水产研究所 200433
刘永士 上海市水产研究所 200433
杨 明 上海市水产研究所 200433
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中文摘要:
      为解决暗纹东方鲀单一品种的池塘养殖瓶颈问题,开发和建立多物种、多营养层次的生态立体种养池塘生态系统,本文研究了暗纹东方鲀(Takifugu obscurus,12000 ind.hm-2)、南美白对虾(Penaeus vannamei,24 万尾.hm-2)和蕹菜(Ipomoea aquatica Forsk)的立体种养模式与暗纹东方鲀传统单养模式(15000 ind.hm-2)的水质变化及养殖能效差异。结果显示,暗纹东方鲀立体种养模式和传统单养模式池塘水体的pH、TAN、NO2-N和NO3-N等水质指标总体较低、数值保持在较理想范围内,这些指标中除了7月8日立体种养模式的NO3-N显著低于传统单养模式的,其他在两模式之间无显著性差异。立体种养模式的叶绿素a明显低于传统单养模式的。两模式的总氮均值范围分别为1.38-3.96 mg.L-1和1.04-3.20 mg.L-1,养殖中后期(7月24日-10月11日),立体种养模式的总氮高于传统单养模式。立体种养模式的总磷(TP)变化随养殖时间呈现缓慢平稳上升趋势(0.26-0.42 mg.L-1);而传统单养模式总磷数值在养殖中期较高、前期后期较低。除了5月6日监测COD数值相对较高外,其他监测的时间点两种养殖模式的COD数值相对较稳定,均值范围分别为6.79-10.24 mg.L-1和6.83-9.15 mg.L-1,两模式间均无显著性差异。TSS数值总体较高,特别是6月13日的水源、7月24日及8月19日的传统单养模式和9月15日的立体种养模式的TSS数值超过150 mg.L-1。各监测时间点的TSS数值在两种养殖模式之间无显著性差异。两种模式暗纹东方鲀的养殖均有利于池塘水体的pH、TAN、NO2-N和NO3-N的净化,对水体中总磷(TP)和TSS的影响不明显,但会造成水体中总氮(TN)和COD的升高。立体种养模式和传统单养模式的暗纹东方鲀生长没有显著性差异,放养密度(12000-15000 ind.hm-2)没有造成暗纹东方鲀生长的空间胁迫。除了立体种养模式的暗纹东方鲀的单位产量(3426.0 kg.hm-2)显著低于传统单养模式的(4055.7 kg.hm-2)外,立体种养和传统单养模式的暗纹东方鲀的出池规格(293.30 g.ind-1和297.53 g.ind-1)、成活率(97.38 %和94.60%)以及饵料系数(2.83和2.91)均无显著性差异。立体种养模式下套养的南美白对虾生长性能良好: 南美对虾产量3056.6 kg.hm-2,规格为22.48g.ind-1,存活率78.17 %,饲料系数为0.68,鱼虾叠加后的饲料系数总体为1.39。相对于暗纹东方鲀传统单养模式,立体种养模式在养殖尾水排放减少11.1%的前提下,每公顷增效102675元,每亩增效6845元。
英文摘要:
      In order to solveSbottleneck problem of single species pondSculture of obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus), develop and set up ecological multistory culture pondSecosystem of various species, the differences of the water quality changes and the cultural efficiencies between multistory culture model of obscure puffer, Penaeus vannamei, and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, and traditional monoculture model of obscure puffer were studied. The results showed that the values of water quality parameters of pH, TAN, NO2-N, and NO3-N in the pond of multistory culture model and traditional monoculture model of obscure puffer were generally low, maintained the ideal range, in these parameters, in addition to the NO3-N(0.110 mg.L-1)of the multistory culture model on July 8 was significantly lower than the NO3-N(0.630 mg.L-1)of the traditional monoculture model, there was no significant difference in other parameters between the two models. The Chl a of the multistory culture model was significantly lower than that of the traditional monoculture model. The scopes of the average total nitrogen (TN) in two models were 1.38-3.96 mg.L-1 and 1.04-3.20 mg.L-1, respectively, in the middle and later periods of the culture (July 24 - October 11), the TN of the multistory culture model was significantly higher than that of the traditional monoculture model. With the cultural time, the total phosphorus (TP) of the multistory culture model showed a trend of slow rising steadily (0.26-0.42 mg.L-1), while the total phosphorus (TP) of the traditional monoculture model showed a trend of high middle (0.50-0.56 mg.L-1) and low on both sides (0.18-0.37 mg.L-1). In addition to the COD value of two models on May 6 is relatively high (the multistory culture model 14.05 mg.L-1 and the traditional monoculture model 15.03 mg.L-1, respectively), in the other monitoring point in time, COD values are relatively stable, the mean ranges were 6.79-10.24 mg.L-1 and 6.83-9.15 mg.L-1, respectively, there was no significant difference between the two models. Overall, the TSS (total suspended solid) value was higher, especiallySsource water on June 13(154.20 mg.L-1), the traditional monoculture model on 24 July and August 19(186.60 mg.L-1 and 181.53 mg.L-1, respectively), and the multistory culture model on September 15(189.87 mg.L-1), these TSS values were more than 150 mg.L-1. In each monitoring point in time, there was no significant difference in the TSS between the two models. Obscure pufferSculture was advantageous to the purification of the pH, TAN, NO2-N, and NO3-N in pond water of the two models, and it was not obvious influence on the TP and TSS in pond water, while, it caused the increase of total nitrogen (TN) and COD in pond water. There was no significant difference in growth of obscure pufferSbetween the multistory culture model and the traditional monoculture model, the stocking density (12000-15000 ind.hm-2) of the two models did not cause space stress of obscure puffer growth. In addition to the obscure puffer unit yield (3426.0 kg.hm-2) of the multistory culture model was significantly lower than that of the traditional monoculture model (4055.7 kg.hm-2), there was no significant difference in out-pond specification (293.30 g.ind-1 and 297.53 g.ind-1, respectively), survival rate (97.38 % and 94.60%, respectively), and food coefficient (2.83 and 2.91, respectively) between the two models. The Penaeus vannamei of polyculture in the multistory culture model was good growth performance: the unit yield of Penaeus vannamei was 3056.6 kg.hm-2, the out-pond specification was 22.48 g.ind-1, the survival rate was 78.17 %, and the food coefficient 0.68, the overall superimposed feed coefficient of fish and shrimp was 1.39. Compared with the obscure puffer traditional single model, under the condition of 11.1% reduction in aquaculture tailSwater discharge, the benefit of the multistory culture model increased by 102675 yuan per ha.
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