文章摘要
张文博,马旭洲.2000年来中国水产养殖发展趋势和方向[J].上海海洋大学学报,2020,29(5):661-674
2000年来中国水产养殖发展趋势和方向
China’s aquaculture development trends since 2000 and future directions
投稿时间:2019-05-23  修订日期:2020-03-15
DOI:10.12024/jsou.20190502673
中文关键词: 中国  水产养殖  可持续发展  现状  趋势
英文关键词: China  aquaculture  sustainable development  status  trends
基金项目:上海市现代农业产业技术体系项目(沪农科产字〔2018〕第4号);水产动物遗传育种中心上海市协同创新中心项目(ZF1206);上海市高水平大学建设研究项目(A1-3201-19-3003)
作者单位E-mail
张文博 上海海洋大学 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306
上海海洋大学 上海市水产养殖工程技术研究中心, 上海 201306
上海海洋大学 水产动物遗传育种协同创新中心, 上海 201306 
 
马旭洲 上海海洋大学 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306
上海海洋大学 上海市水产养殖工程技术研究中心, 上海 201306
上海海洋大学 水产动物遗传育种协同创新中心, 上海 201306 
xz-ma@shou.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      中国是世界最大的水产养殖国家,为全球粮食安全和营养供应做出了重要贡献。在新的社会发展阶段,中国水产养殖需要解决与粮食安全、减贫和提供就业、食品安全和环境保护等相关的复杂且敏感的问题,以期达到更加可持续地发展。本文系统综述了2000年来中国水产养殖发展趋势、存在问题和发展方向。中国水产养殖业自2000年以来获得了持续的发展,集约化水平不断提高,新增的特种养殖品种使得产业多样化水平增加,一些传统的养殖模式逐渐消失,而新的养殖技术和模式不断涌现。中国水产养殖的变化和发展响应了社会发展对水产养殖业的需求。然而中国水产养殖目前仍面临诸如生态环境、科技水平、产品供应结构、小农生产和政策风险等亟待解决的问题。随着中国社会发展和经济水平不断进步,发展水产养殖的主要侧重点也逐渐从提供食物到提供就业和发展经济,再到环境保护和食品安全。中国水产养殖业需要充分利用最新的设施装备技术、信息技术、遗传育种技术、营养饲料和病害防治技术促进水产养殖业发展,努力提高水产养殖业规模化和组织化,促进渔业“一、二、三产”协同发展,并在新形势下逐渐走向国际化和可持续发展的道路。
英文摘要:
      China is the world's largest aquaculture producer and has made important contributions to global food security and nutrient supply. In the new stage of social development, China's aquaculture needs to address complex and sensitive issues related to food security, poverty alleviation and employment, food safety, and environmental protection in order to achieve more sustainable development. The present study reviews the development trends since 2000, existing problems and development directions of aquaculture in China. China's aquaculture industry has achieved continuous development since 2000, and the level of intensification and diversification has been continuously improved, some traditional farming systems have gradually disappeared, and new farming techniques and models have emerged. The changes and development of aquaculture in China have responded to society's changing needs of the aquaculture industry. However, China's aquaculture still faces difficulties around ecological environment protection, technology level improvement, product supply structure, smallholder producer and policy risks. With the continuous transforming and upgrading of China's social and economic levels since the reform and opening, the primary focus of the development of aquaculture has gradually shifted from providing food to providing employment and economic development, and then to environmental protection and food safety recently. China's aquaculture industry needs to make full use of the latest equipment technology, information technology, genetic breeding technology, nutrient and disease prevention technology to promote the development of aquaculture, strive to increase the scale and organization levels, promote synergistically development of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries, and move towards internationalization and sustainable development gradually.
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